Online Journal Club

As busy physicians, Spine Intervention Society members struggle to keep up with the never-ending stream of new research findings that can impact their practice. Members need to be able to attend to valid research findings and understand how such data can assist their clinical practice. Members can benefit from being able to defend their treatment plans to insurance carriers, and will better understand directions for future research pursuits.

On a quarterly basis, the Research Division members identify and review three high impact papers that are of most interest to interventional spine care, summarizing and critically appraising the studies, and posting the summary, critique and reference information here.

Please follow the links below and to share any thoughts and suggestions about the critical assessment of these studies and their potential impact on everyday practice via the message boards.

Disclaimer: These reviews have been completed by members of the Spine Intervention Society's Research Division who have been trained in evidence-based medicine (EBM). The reviews represent the thoughts and opinions of the individuals who have completed the reviews, not the SIS Research Division or the Spine Intervention Society as an organization. The intent of the Online Journal Club is to summarize recently published studies on high priority topics, and encourage consideration and stimulate discussion among SIS members.

Click links to access assessments (Requires Member Login)

First Quarter: January - March 2020

Bailey CS, Rasoulinejad P, Taylor D, Sequeira K, Miller T, Watson J, et al. (2020) Surgery Versus Conservative Care for Persistent Sciatica Lasting 4-12 Months.

Bise S, Dallaudiere B, Pesquer L, Pedram M, Meyer P, Antoun MB, Hocquelet A, Silvestre A. (2020) Comparison of Interlaminar CT-Guided Epidural Platelet Rich Plasma Versus Steroid Injection in Patients with Lumbar Radicular Pain.

Huang J, Yang S, Yang J, et al. (2020) Early Treatment with Temporary Spinal Cord Stimulation Effectively Prevents Development of Postherpetic Neuralgia.

Fourth Quarter: October December 2019

Kwon SS, Chazen JL, Kishore S, Habibi BA, Chi M, Rand E, Lowder R, Singh JR. (2019). Investigation of Genicular Neurotomy of the Knee: MRI Characterization of Anatomy and Implications for Intervention.

Campos WK, Linhares MN, Sarda J, Santos ARS, Lin K, Latini A, Walz R. (2019). Predictors of Pain Recurrence After Lumbar Facet Joint Injections.

Third Quarter: July September 2019

Bensler S, Walde M, Fischer MA, Pfirrmann CW, Peterson CK, Sutter R. (2019). Comparison of Treatment Outcomes in Lumbar Disc Herniation Patients Treated with Epidural Steroid Injections: Interlaminar Versus Transforaminal Approach

  • CME REVIEW OPTION See why the review provided weak conclusions. Click here to earn CME credit by reviewing an analysis of this article and completing a post-test.

Truumees E, Macadaeg K, Pena E, Arbuckle J 2nd, Gentile J 2nd, Funk R, Singh D, Vinayek S. (2019). A Prospective, Open-label, Single-arm, Multi-center Study of Intraosseous Basivertebral Nerve Ablation for the Treatment of Chronic Low Back Pain.

  • CME REVIEW OPTION What is the impact of radiofrequency ablation of the basivertebral nerve for the treatment of low back pain in patients with Modic 1 or 2 changes? Click here to earn CME credit by reviewing an analysis of this article and completing  a post-test.

Second Quarter: April – June 2019

Chen AS, Miccio TF, Smith CC, Christolias GC, Blanchard AR. (2019). Procedural Pain During Lumbar Medial Branch Blocks With and Without Skin Wheal Anesthesia: A Prospective Comparative Observational Study.

  • CME REVIEW OPTION Do anesthetic skin wheals reduce lumbar medial branch block pain? Click here to earn CME credit by reviewing an analysis of this article and completing  a post-test.

Hetta DF, Elawamy AM, Hassanein MM, Aljohi AS, Hasan RA, Mohammed NAA, Seifeldein GS. (2019). Efficacy of Atlantoaxial Joint Glucocorticoid Injection in Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis: A Randomized Trial.

  • CME REVIEW OPTION In this important study the researchers' recalculation of responder rates led to findings of significant efficacy. Click here to earn CME credit by reviewing an analysis of this article and completing  a post-test.

First Quarter: January – March 2019

Prabhala T, Sabourin S, DiMarzio M, Gillogly M, Prusik J, Pilitsis JG. (2019). Duloxetine Improves Spinal Cord Stimulation Outcomes for Chronic Pain.

  • CME REVIEW OPTION Does duloxetine improve SCS outcomes for chronic pain patients? Click here to earn CME credit by reviewing an analysis of this article and completing  a post-test.

Sivanesan E, Bicket MC, Cohen SP. (2019). Retrospective Analysis of Complications Associated with Dorsal Root Ganglion Stimulation for Pain Relief in the FDA MAUDE Database.

  • CME REVIEW OPTION The FDA Manufacturer and User Facility Device Experience (MAUDE) database provides a snapshot of complications, minor and severe.  Click here to earn CME credit for reviewing an evidentiary table and journal article on DRG complications in the MAUDE database, and completing  a post-test.

Zeng C, Dubreuil M, LaRochelle MR, Lu N, Wei J, Choi HK, Lei G, Zhang Y. (2019). Association of Tramadol With All-Cause Mortality Among Patients With Osteoarthritis.

  • CME REVIEW OPTION Is tramadol associated with all-cause mortality among patients with osteoarthritis? Click here to earn CME credit for reviewing this journal article, evidentiary table, and completing  a post-test.

Fourth Quarter: October – December 2018
Duse G, Reverberi C, Dario A. (2018). Effects of Multiple Waveforms on Patient Preferences and Clinical Outcomes in Patients Treated With Spinal Cord Stimulation for Leg and/or Back Pain.

Kim EJ, Chotai S, Schneider BJ, Sivaganesen A, McGirt MJ, Devin CJ. (2018). Effect of Depression on Patient-Reported Outcomes Following Cervical Epidural Steroid Injection for Degenerative Spine Disease.

  • CME REVIEW OPTION Does Depression Influence Patient Outcomes After Cervical ESIs? Click here to earn CME credit by reviewing an analysis of this article and completing  a post-test.

Wahezi SE, Jones Molina J, Alexeev E, Georgy JS, Haramati N, Erosa SA, Shah JM, Downie S. (2018). Cervical Medial Branch Block Volume Dependent Dispersion Patterns as a Predictor for Ablation Success: A Cadaveric Study.

  • CME REVIEW OPTION What injectate volume is sufficient for cervical medial branch blocks? Click here to earn CME credit by reviewing an analysis of this article and completing  a post-test.

Third Quarter: July – September 2018

De Jaeger M, Goudman L, De Groote S, Rigoard P, Monlezun O, Moens M. (2018). Does Spinal Cord Stimulation Really Influence Sleep?

  • CME REVIEW OPTION Does Spinal Cord Stimulation Really Influence Sleep? Click here to earn CME credit by reviewing an analysis of this article and completing  a post-test.

Farshad M, Burgstaller JM, Held U, Steurer J, Dennler C. (2018). Do Preoperative Corticosteroid Injections Increase the Risk for Infections or Wound Healing Problems After Spine Surgery?: A Swiss Prospective Multicenter Cohort Study.

  • CME REVIEW OPTION Surgical site infections and wound healing problems after spine surgery – is a history of steroid injections a risk factor? Click here to earn CME credit by reviewing an analysis of this article and completing  a post-test.

Khan H, Kumar V, Ghulam-Jelani Z, McCallum SE, Hobson E, Sukul V, Pilitsis JG. (2018). Safety of Spinal Cord Stimulation in Patients Who Routinely Use Anticoagulants.

  • CME REVIEW OPTION What is the safety of spinal cord stimulation (SCS) epidural placement or revision in anticoagulation-suspended patients? Click here to earn CME credit by reviewing an analysis of this article and completing  a post-test.

Second Quarter: April – June 2018

Al-Kaisy A, Palmisani S, Pang D, Sanderson K, Wesley S, Tan Y, McCammon S, Trescott A. (2018). Prospective, Randomized, Sham-Control, Double Blind, Crossover Trial of Subthreshold Spinal Cord Stimulation at Various Kilohertz Frequencies in Subjects Suffering From Failed Back Surgery Syndrome (SCS Frequency Study).

  • CME REVIEW OPTION What are the effects of varying the frequency of spinal cord stimulation to treat patients with failed back surgery syndrome? Click here to earn CME credit by reviewing an analysis of this article and completing  a post-test.

Cohen SP, Doshi TL, Constantinescu OC, Zhao Z, Kurihara C, Larkin TM, Griffith SR, Jacobs MB, Kroski WJ, Dawson TC, Fowler IM, White RL, Verdun AJ, Jamison DE, Anderson-White M, Shank SE, Pasquina PF. (2018). Effectiveness of Lumbar Facet Joint Blocks and Predictive Value before Radiofrequency Denervation: The Facet Treatment Study (FACTS), a Randomized, Controlled Clinical Trial.

  • CME REVIEW OPTION The FACTS study of diagnostic and therapeutic outcomes leads to complicated conclusions and interpretation. Click here to earn CME credit by reviewing an analysis of this article and completing  a post-test.

Kennedy DJ, Huynh L, Wong J, Mattie R, Levin J, Smuck M, Schneider BJ. (2018). Corticosteroid Injections into Lumbar Facet Joints: A Prospective, Randomized, Double-Blind Placebo-Controlled Trial.

  • CME REVIEW OPTION The pragmatic approach used in this study design reveals the difficulties of RCT implementation in patients with z-joint pain. Click here by to earn CME credit by reviewing an analysis of this article and completing  a post-test.

First Quarter: January – March 2018

Deckers K, De Smedt K, Mitchell B, Vivian D, Russo M, Georgius P, Green M, Vieceli J, Eldabe S, Gulve A, van Buyten JP, Smet I, Mehta V, Ramaswamy S, Baranidharan G, Sullivan R, Gassin R, Rathmell J, Gilligan C. (2018). New Therapy for Refractory Chronic Mechanical Low Back Pain-Restorative Neurostimulation to Activate the Lumbar Multifidus: One Year Results of a Prospective Multicenter Clinical Trial.

  • CME REVIEW OPTION Might our patients with chronic low back pain have a new treatment option? Click here to earn CME credit by reviewing an analysis of this article and completing  a post-test.

Gee L, Smith HC, Ghulam-Jelani Z, Khan H, Prusik J, Feustel PJ, McCallum SE, Pilitsis JG. (2018). Spinal Cord Stimulation for the Treatment of Chronic Pain Reduces Opioid Use and Results in Superior Clinical Outcomes When Used Without Opioids.

  • CME REVIEW OPTION Did SCS reduce opioid use one year following SCS implantation or did confounding variables interfere? Click here to earn CME credit by reviewing an analysis of this article and completing  a post-test.

Lee GY, Lee JW, Yeom JS, Kim KJ, Shin HI, Kang HS. (2018). The Incidence of Various Types of Systemic Reactions Related to Epidural Steroid Injections: A Prospective Observational Study.

  • CME REVIEW OPTION This study aimed to characterize the incidence of systemic reactions to epidural and facet injections of steroid. Click here to earn CME credit by reviewing an analysis of this article and completing  a post-test.

Fourth Quarter: October – December 2017 

  • CME REVIEW OPTION Do conventional anatomical landmarks predict successful RFN of SIJ lateral branch nerves? Click here to earn CME credit while deciphering these conclusions and completing  a post-test on the SIS eLearning platform
  • CME REVIEW OPTION The authors present a statistically significant improvement yet external calculations fail to support that conclusion. Click here to earn CME credit by reviewing this article and completing  a post-test on the SIS eLearning platform .

Third Quarter: July – September 2017 

  • CME REVIEW OPTION Can neuroforaminal changes of the lumbar spine clarify clinical pain symptoms? Click here to earn CME credit while you find out by reviewing this article and completing  a post-test on the SIS eLearning platform.

Second Quarter: April – June 2017

Nguyen C, Boutron I, Baron G, Sanchez K, Palazzo C, Benchimol R, Paris G, James-Belin É, Lefèvre-Colau MM, Beaudreuil J, Laredo JD, Béra-Louville A, Cotten A, Drapé JL, Feydy A, Ravaud P, Rannou F, Poiraudeau S. (2017). Intradiscal Glucocorticoid Injection for Patients With Chronic Low Back Pain Associated With Active Discopathy: A Randomized Trial.

First Quarter: January – March 2017 

Singla A, Yang S, Werner BC, Cancienne JM, Nourbakhsh A, Shimer AL, et al. (2017). The Impact of Preoperative Epidural Injections on Postoperative Infection in Lumbar Fusion Surgery.

Park JY, Karm MH, Kim DH, Lee JY, Yun HJ, Suh JH. (2017). Optimal Angle of Contralateral Oblique View in Cervical Interlaminar Epidural Injection Depending on the Needle Tip Position.

Fourth Quarter: October – December 2016 

Carr CM, Plastaras CT, Pingree MJ, Smuck M, Maus TP, Geske JR, El-Yahchouchi CA, McCormick ZL, Kennedy DJ. (2016). Immediate Adverse Events in Interventional Pain Procedures: A Multi-Institutional Study.

McCormick ZL, Cushman D, Marshall B, Caldwell M, Patel J, Ghannad L, Eng C, Makovitch S, Babu A, Chu SK, Marciniak C, Walega DR, Press J, Plastaras C, Kennedy DJ. (2016). Pain Reduction and Repeat Injections After Transforaminal Epidural Injection With Particulate Versus Nonparticulate Steroid for the Treatment of Chronic Painful Lumbosacral Radiculopathy.

Third Quarter: July – September 2016 

Beeravolu N, Brougham J, Khan I, McKee C, Perez-Cruet M, Chaudhry RG. (2016). Human Umbilical Cord Derivatives Regenerate Intervertebral Disc.

Ökmen K, Ökmen BM. (2016).The Efficacy of Interlaminar Epidural Steroid Administration in Multilevel Intervertebral Disc Disease with Chronic Low Back Pain: A Randomized, Blinded, Prospective Study.    

Park CH, Lee SH. (2016). Feasibility of Contralateral Oblique Fluoroscopy-guided Cervical Interlaminar Steroid Injections.

Second Quarter: April – June 2016 

Desai MJ, Kapural L, Petersohn JD, Vallejo R, Menzies R, Creamer M, Gofeld M. (2016). A Prospective Randomized, Multicenter, Open-Label Clinical Trial Comparing Intradiscal Biacuplasty to Conventional Medical Management for Discogenic Lumbar Back Pain. 

Farooque M, Salzman MM, Ye Z. (2016). Effectiveness of Bilateral Transforaminal Epidural Steroid Injections in Degenerative Lumbar Spinal Stenosis Patients with Neurogenic Claudication: A Case Series. 

Feigl GC, Dreu M, Kastner M, Rosmarin W, Ulz H, Kniesel B, Likar R. (2016). Thermocoagulation of the Medial Branch of the Lumbar Spinal Nerve: Fluoroscopy versus CT.

First Quarter: January – March 2016

F inlayson RJ, Etheridge JP, Chalermkitpanit P, Tiyaprasertkul W, Nelems B, Tran de QH, Huntoon MA. (2016).  Real-Time Detection of Periforaminal Vessels in the Cervical Spine, An Ultrasound Survey.

Lamer TJ, Smith J, Hoelzer BC, Mauck WD, Qu W, Gazelka HM. (2016). Safety of Lumbar Spine Radiofrequency Procedures in Patients Who Have Posterior Spinal Hardware.

Levi DS, Horn S, Collado A. (2016). Reliability and Accuracy of MRI Laminar Angle Measurements to Determine Intra-Procedural Contralateral Oblique View Angle for Cervical or Thoracic Interlaminar Epidural Steroid Injections.

Fourth Quarter: October – December 2015

Freiermuth D, Kretzschmar M, Bilecen D, Schaeren S, Jacob AL, Aeschbach A, Ruppen W. (2015). Correlation of 99mmTc-DPD SPECT/CT Scan Findings and Diagnostic Blockades of Lumbar Medial Branches in Patients with Unspecific Low Back Pain in a Randomized-Controlled Trial.

Plastaras C, McCormick ZL, Garvan C, Macron D, Joshi A, Chimes G, Smeal W, Rittenberg J, Kennedy DJ. (2015.) Adverse events associated with fluoroscopically guided lumbosacral transforaminal epidural steroid injections.

Sivaganesan A, Chotai S, Parker S, Asher T, McGirt MJ, Devin CJ. (2015). Predictors of the efficacy of epidural steroid injections for structural lumbar degenerative pathology.

Third Quarter: July – September 2015

Cohen SP, Moon JY, Brummett CM, White RL, Larkin TM. (2015). Medial Branch Blocks or Intra-Articular Injections as a Prognostic Tool Before Lumbar Facet Radiofrequency Denervation: A Multicenter, Case-Control Study. 

Fekete T, Woernle C, Mannion AF, Held U, Min K, Kleinstück F, Ulrich N, Haschtmann D, Becker HJ, Porchet F, Theiler R, Steurer J; LSOS Working Group. (2015). The Effect of Epidural Steroid Injection on Postoperative Outcome in Patients From the Lumbar Spinal Stenosis Outcome Study. 

Tuakli-Wosornu, Terry A, Boachie-Adjei K, Harrison JR, Gribbin CK, LaSalle EE, Nguyen JT, Solomon JL, Lutz GE. (2015). Lumbar Intradiskal Platelet-Rich Plasma (PRP) Injections: A Prospective, Double-Blind, Randomized Controlled Study .

Second Quarter: April – June 2015

Goni VG, Singh Jhala S, Gopinathan NR, Behera P, Batra YK. (2015). Efficacy of Epidural Perineural Injection of Autologous Conditioned Serum In Unilateral Cervical Radiculopathy: A Pilot Study.

Lavelle WF, Mroz T, Lieberman I. (2015). The Incidence of Lumbar Discectomy after Epidural Steroid Injections or Selective Nerve Root Blocks.

McCormick Z, Kennedy DJ, Garvan C, Rivers E, Temme K, Margolis S, Zander E, Rohr A, Smith MC, Plastaras C. (2015). Comparison of Pain Score Reduction Using Triamcinolone vs. Betamethasone in Transforaminal Epidural Steroid Injections for Lumbosacral Radicular Pain.

First Quarter: January – March 2015

Manchikanti L, Cash KA, McManus CD, Damron KS, Pampati V, Falco FJ (2015). A Randomized, Double-Blind Controlled Trial of Lumbar Interlaminar Epidural Injections in Central Spinal Stenosis: 2-Year Follow-up.

Cushman D, McCormick Z, Casey E, Plastaras CT. (2015). Discrepancies in Describing Pain: Is There Agreement Between Numeric Rating Scale Scores and Pain Reduction Percentage Reported by Patients with Musculoskeletal Pain After Corticosteroid Injection?

Fourth Quarter: October – December 2014

Bicket MC, Horowitz J, Benzon H, Cohen SP. (2014). Epidural injections in prevention of surgery for spinal pain: systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

Cosman ER Jr, Dolensky JR, Hoffman RA. (2014). Factors that affect radiofrequency heat lesion size

Spijker-Huiges A, Vermeulen K, Winters JC, van Wijhe M, van der Meer K. (2014). Costs and cost-effectiveness of epidural steroids for acute lumbosacral radicular syndrome in general practice: an economic evaluation alongside a pragmatic randomized control trial.

Third Quarter: July – September 2014

Barbieri M, Bellini M. (2014). Radiofrequency neurotomy for the treatment of chronic pain: interference with implantable medical devices.

Friedly JL, Comstock BA, Turner JA, Heagerty PJ, Deyo RA, Sullivan SD, Bauer Z, Bresnahan BW, Avins AL, Nedeljkovic SS, Nerenz DR, Standaert C, Kessler L, Akuthota V, Annaswamy T, Chen A, Diehn F, Firtch W, Gerges FJ, Gillian C, Goldberg H, Kennedy DJ, Mandel S, Tyburski M, Sanders W, Sibell D, Smuck M, Wasan A, Won L, Jarvik JG. (2014). A Randomized Trial of Epidural Glucocorticoid Injections for Spinal Stenosis

Plastaras C, McCormick Z, Macron D, Garvan C, Joshi A, Chimes G, Smeal W, Rittenberg J. (2014). Adverse events associated with fluoroscopically guided zygapophyseal joint injections.

Second Quarter: April – June 2014

Evansa I, Logina I, Vanags I, Borgeat A. (2014). Ultrasound versus fluoroscopic-guided epidural steroid injections in patients with degenerative spinal diseases: A prospective, randomised study.

Kennedy DJ, Plastaras C, Casey E, Visco CJ, Rittenberg JD, Conrad B, Sigler J, Dreyfuss P. (2014). Comparative effectiveness of lumbar transforaminal epidural steroid injections with particulate versus nonparticulate corticosteroids for lumbar radicular pain due to intervertebral disc herniation: a prospective, randomized, double-blind trial.

First Quarter: January – March 2014

Al-Kaisy, A., Van Buyten, J.P., Smet, I., Palmisani, S., Pang, D., & Smith, T. (2014). Sustained Effectiveness of 10kHz High-Frequency Spinal Cord Stimulation for Patients with Chronic, Low Back Pain: 24-Month Results of a Prospective Multicenter Study.

Engel, A., King, W., MacVicar, J., & Standards Division of the International Spine Intervention Society. (2014). The effectiveness and risks of fluoroscopically guided cervical transforaminal injections of steroids: a systematic review with comprehensive analysis of the published data.

Smith, A.D., Jull, G., Schneider, G., Frizzell, B., Hooper, R.A., & Sterling, M. (2014). Cervical radiofrequency neurotomy reduces central hyperexcitability and improves neck movement in individuals with chronic whiplash.  

Fourth Quarter: October – December 2013

Beyaz, S.G., Eman, A. (2013). Fluoroscopy guided cervical interlaminar steroid injections in patients with cervical pain syndromes: a retrospective study.

Bicket, M.C., Gupta, A., Brown, C.H., Cohen, S.P. (2013) Epidural injections for spinalpain. A systematic review and meta-analysis evaluating the "control” injectionsin randomized controlled trials.

Freeman, B.J., Ludbrook, G.L., Hall, S., Cousins, M., Mitchell, B., Jaros, M., Wyand, M., Gorman, J.R. (2013). Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, trial of transforaminal epidural etanercept for the treatment of symptomatic lumbar disc herniation.

Third Quarter: July – September 2013

El-Yahchouchi, C., Geske, J.R., Carter, R.E., Diehn, F.E., Wald, J.T., Murthy, N.S., Kaufmann, T.J., Thielen, K.R., Morris, J.M., Amrami, K.K., Maus, T.P. (2013). The Noninferiority of the nonparticulate steroid dexamethasone vs the particulate steroids betamethasone and triamcinolone in lumbar transforaminal epidural steroid injections.

Park, Y., Lee, J.H., Park, K.D., Ahn, J.K., Park, J., Jee, H. (2013). Ultrasound-guided vs. fluoroscopy-guided caudal epidural steroid injection for the treatment of unilateral lower lumbar radicular pain: a prospective, randomized, single-blind clinical study.

Ribeiro, L.H., Furtado, R.N., Konai, M.S., Andreo, A.B., Rosenfeld, A., Natour, J. (2013).  The effect of facet joint injection versus systemic steroids in low back pain: a randomised contolled trial.

Second Quarter: April – June 2013

Kaufmann, T. J., Geske, J. R., Murthy, N. S., Thielen, K. R., Morris, J. M., Wald, J. T., Diehn, F. E., Amrami, K. K., Carter, R. E., Shelerud, R. A., Gay, R. E. and Maus, T. P. (2013).
Clinical Effectiveness of Single Lumbar Transforaminal Epidural Steroid Injections.

Kroszczynski AC, Kohan K, Kurowski M, Olson TR, Downie SA. (2013). Intraforaminal Location of Thoracolumbar Anterior Medullary Arteries. Pain Medicine.

MacVicar J, Borowczyk J.M., MacVicar A.M., Loughnan B.M., Bogduk N. (2013). Lumbar Medial Branch Radiofrequency Neurotomy in New Zealand.

First Quarter: January – March 2013

Benyon, R., Hawkins, J., Laing, R., Higgins, N., Whiting, P., et al. (2013). The diagnostic utility and cost-effectiveness of selective nerve root blocks in patients considered for lumbar decompression surgery: A systematic review and economic model.

MacVicar, J., King, W., Landers, M.H., Bogduk, N. (2013).
The effectiveness of lumbar transforaminal injection of steroids: a comprehensive review with systematic analysis of the published data.

Radcliffe, K., Kepler, C., Hilibrand, A., Rihn, J., Zhao, W., Lurie, J., et al. (2013). Epidural steroid injections are associated with less improvement in patients with lumbar spinal stenosis: A subgroup analysis of the Spine Patient Outcome Research Trial.

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